Trichomes definition biology




Ground tissue The trichomes are usually attenuated from base to apex and possess basal heterocysts. all im sayin is i grew some AK back when i just started, flowerin under t5's and shit. Dermal tissue covers the outside of the plant, except in woody shrubs and trees, which have bark. This slows air moving over the surface of the plant; since air in the desert is very dry any air movement tends to increase evaporation. Secondary meristems (vascular cambium and cork cambium) then add girth to the plant by adding secondary xylem, phloem, and cork. trichomes in the last lab on the Coleus stem. Wayne Huang and his team. In a study on the effects Biology Assignment Help, Botany, Suggest a mechanism that would allow a plant to grow better if it had intermorph neighbors than if it had intramorph neighbors. 0 µm long. Most leaves are usually green, due to the presence of chlorophyll in the leaf cells. A tuft, line or zone of trichomes. 0µ (Figure 2. It uses the wiki concept, so that anyone can make a contribution. Trichomes of the adaxial face of the corolla are living, only distal cells contain dense cytoplasm, and the terminal cell is rounded. This adaptive behavior also occurs in insects, most famously in green lacewing larvae who nestle the trash among setigerous cuticular processes, known as trash-carrying, rendering them nearly undetectable to predators and prey, as well as forming a defensive shield. but i had one that flowered and flowered and flowered and NEVER produced trichomes. 2. Foliate embryo with expanded and usually thick cotyledons in an axile position bent upon the hypocotyl in a jacknife position. Student Vocabulary Journal. Trichomes also contain UV ray-absorbing compounds that help protect plant leaves from potential harm from too much sunlight. Aug 18, 2019- Explore walktheworldnp's board "Botany" on Pinterest. Research suggests trichomes protect plants from predators (and there are more predators in different environments) Trichomes help keep the frost away from the living surface of cells (and it is colder in different environments) Our test was a fair test (due to 95% confidence, set up, controls, etc) Biology is one of the most interesting and diverse fields of science, and there have been many famous biologists. SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY OF W. During the water stress condition in leaf minimize by curling the leaf inwards. Take photos of individual leaf with a scale under a stereomicroscope and make sure the trichomes are clear (Figure 1b). Our test was a fair test (due to 95% confidence, set up, controls, etc) d. Anatomy of a Typical Dicot Dorsiventral Leaf Cross Section (CS) Under Microscope with Labelled Diagram, Description and PPT Trichomes from the Greek τρίχωμα (trichōma) meaning "hair", are fine outgrowths or 5 Significance for plant molecular biology; 6 Uses; 7 Defense. , natural fragrances or products that can be used by What can we learn from trichomes? Study of trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana has produced a rich knowledge on the developmental program of this cell type. Coder, Professor of Tree Biology & Health Care, Explain the three hypotheses explaining water movement in plant xylem, and recognize which hypothesis explains the heights of plants beyond a few meters; Water Transport from Roots to Shoots. Trichomes were originally developed to protect the plant against predators and the elements. trichomes have a circular crown of branches which are star-shaped. Almost half of the measured cells had widths Plant hairs act as physical barriers keeping smaller insects away from the leaf surface. It is a relatively new term The miR319‐targeted class II TCP genes suppress trichome branching . Plants have about a dozen basic cell types that are required for everyday functioning and survival. External secretory structures in plants are called glandular trichomes. write a definition for each of the terms listed in the text/notes above. ) 3. Here we see a sheath, and on the inside can see a chain of cells, rod-shaped cells, that make up the trichome of a cyanobacterium. Together with TTG1 and GL3, promotes trichome formation and endoreplication. Sap is a nutrient-rich fluid that contains a lot of sugar. The term trichome comes from the Greek trikhōma, which in turn is from trikhoun (meaning "to cover with hair") or from thrix  Trichome Definition - Trichomes, also referred to as glandular trichomes, are tiny hair-like components that are found on the epidermis of several Examples of trichome in the following topics: Leaf Structure, Function, and Adaptation. by definition Artificial selection definition, a process in the breeding of animals and in the cultivation of plants by which the breeder chooses to perpetuate only those forms having certain desirable inheritable characteristics. ) Plants were grown from seeds in a greenhouse of the Department of Biology, Indiana . Other leaves may have small hairs (trichomes) on the leaf surface. any hairlike outgrowth from an epidermal cell of a plant, ( biology) Hairlike structures found in some microscopic organisms and algae. Besides definition of DNA-binding specificity in vitro and the identification of a few targets regulated by Ovo germline-specific isoforms [35, 36], only a single epidermal enhancer dependent on Svb has been identified so far . Artificial selection experiments require a relatively large population of plants with ample phenotypic variation. Eight secretory cells (gray shading), arranged in a disc, are responsible for the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid essential oils, which are then secreted into a preformed cavity. A tissue is a group of cells with a common function, structure or both. Trichomes and Taxonomy 6. on the Trichomes of Cannabis. Seeds that are randomly positioned when planted in a pot of soil placed . Carnivorous plants secrete digestive enzymes from trichomes. 3. Using transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a green fluorescent protein–microtubule-associated protein4 fusion protein, which decorates the microtubular cytoskeleton, we observed that during trichome branching, microtubules reorient with respect to the longitudinal growth axis. The stem has vessels that transport sap and water throughout the plant. Modern molecular techniques allow plant biologists to investigate how growth, morphogenesis, and cellular differentiation give rise to a plant. tabaci showed that this insect can beaffected by leaf morphological character such as leaf shape, hairiness and glandular trichomes [14]. However, many anthropogenic semi-volatile organic com-pounds (sVOCs) are defined by the WHO as indoor pol-lutants that have a very high boiling point in the range of 240/260–360/400 °C, which differs from very volatile Plant phase changes and heteroblasty. Leaves are the main sites for photosynthesis: the process by which plants synthesize food. Endopolyploidy arises from variations of the canonical G1–S–G2–M cell cycle that replicate the genome without cell division. ), Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants (pp. Harvard University . cutin synonyms, cutin pronunciation, cutin translation, English dictionary definition of cutin. Gruissem, & R. Exaptation is a term used in evolutionary biology to describe a trait that has been co-opted for a use other than the one for which natural selection has built it. Trichomes refer to the tiny hairs that emerge from the surfaces of leaves and of plants. Noeline M. Glandular trichomes are most commonly found in the Lamiaceae (syn. I. Although it has been demonstrated that the class II TCP transcription factors accelerate the differentiation of the pavement cells by promoting their expansion, their role in the differentiation of the other two cell types is not known. . Stomata of Monocot Plants – Definition, Guard cells, Distribution of Stomata 2. Stems are usually above ground, although the stems of some plants, such as the potato, also grow underground. In Research suggests trichomes protect plants from predators (and there are more predators in different environments) b. 0 The lower epidermis contains stomata cells that help prevent water loss and regulate the exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, enabling plants to survive. murale. In female cannabis, that amounts to an A. Male plants are staminate and produce pollen. What Is the Internode Function? The function of an internode is to link the nodes of a plant together. 1 Trichome initiation. Click on any photo for a larger image. A hair- or scale-like extension of the epidermis of a plant. With long trichomes usually in a tuft, line or zone. ); Foteini Hassiotou, and Erik J. The multiple layers can be traced back to the Protoderm which is the primary meristem for the Epidermis. Types of Trichomes 3. Pairing diminutive stature and genome with prodigious resources and tools, Arabidopsis offers a window into the Leaf Morphology and Photosynthesis •Water retention –Cuticle of wax/fatty acids –Stoma on lower leaf surface –Lower surface trichomes •Capture sunlight –Flat, broad surface –Concentrate photosynthetic cells and chloroplasts towards upper surface Molecular biology is revolutionizing the study of plants. KAR and TMB bind to receptor proteins in a seed. Trichomes. This first characterization resulted in the definition of the main trichome morphotypes in the tribe. In land plants, rhizoids are trichomes that anchor the plant to the ground. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i. to the first definition of a ‘planar polarity pathway’ by Wong and Adler in 1993, consisting of a genetic hierarchy involved in the coordinated polarisation of ommatidia, bristles and trichomes (Figure 1G). The information below was adapted from OpenStax Biology 30. Labiatae) family. Functions of Plant Parts The Root. Specialized cells known as guard cells surround stomata and function to open and close stomat (mealy) trichomes. Epidermis of leaves also have different types of hairs or trichomes. Often referred to as Glandular trichomes are the glistening resinous crystals found on about 30 per cent of a mature female marijuana plant. Trichome definition is - a filamentous outgrowth; especially : an epidermal hair structure on a plant. Trichomes This post will also help you wrap your mind around the biology of trichomes, their importance to you and to the rest of the cannabis plant. Waxy Cuticle Edit. 0–6. In certain xerophytic leaves, the epidermis is invaginated to form small chambers. The surface of a leaf or other structure covered by these peculiar, sessile, water-filled vesicles appears to be coated with minute beads. There are numerous trichomes:- simple, glandular, bulbous, sessile, peltate etc. The production of cannabinoids and their associated terpenes in Cannabis is subject to environmental influences as well as hereditary determinants. Trichomes and root hairs are some epidermal outgrowths. It is blue-green algae. Nostoc colony forms a jelly-like mass. As with all large projects, strong project management with milestones and quality metrics are essential. For example, the secondary walls in shoot trichomes and cotton fiber are structurally distinct. Sometimes it's also called Hounds Tongue because the trichomes make the leaf feel like the good old rough tongue of a hound. In the stem and the leaf, the epidermal hairs are multicellular and are known as trichomes. Cannabis produces psychotropic and therapeutic compounds in trichomes clustered on the flowers of the female plant. 1. Ex. Bacteria: Definition, Size, Shape and Arrangement (With Figure)! A. 138) show following characteristics: 1. At the right you see the much magnified,stiff hairs, or trichomes, about 0. Berry. No, we’re not talking about Kleenex or Puffs or other handy products during cold season, but the tissues that make up plant bodies. Stems may be herbaceous (soft) or woody in nature. Logistically, the first part of the lab requires quite a bit of coordination and sharing of duties among all students in the class. Morphology, ontogeny and histochemistry of secretory trichomes of Geranium robertianum (Geraniaceae) Article in Nordic Journal of Botany 10(5):501 - 509 · June 2008 with 75 Reads DOI: 10. Allow cells to grow iii. Introduction to Trichomes 2. It is widely distributed in alkaline soils, moist rocks, water ponds, streams, and lakes etc. Thus, two or more cell layers are derived from the protoderm. A major function of the trichome is thought to be in plant defense against insects. A strict definition of biogenic sVOCs and their differ-ence from more volatile biogenic VOCs is not available. d. i didnt know better, a buddy came over and straight laughed at me at first then proceded to teach me a thing or two. Rumi Tominaga-Wada, Takuji Wada, in International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, 2011. The cuticle reduces the rate of water loss from the leaf surface. Study the diagram of the (KAR) and trimethylbutenolides (TMB) are water-soluble compounds found in smoke that are deposited in the soil as a result of a fire. moschata (Duchesne ex Lam. The epidermal system of plants consists of the outer skin or epidermis of all plant organs, starting from the roots, to the fruits and seeds. Trichomes may be branched or unbranched. What is RHIZOID? What does RHIZOID mean? RHIZOID meaning - RHIZOID definition - RHIZOID explanation. 55108, USA. The word trichome comes from the Greek word for hair because they resemble little hairs. Because of their biological activity and structural . Provide support for surrounding tissue 1. 22 Jan 2016 The most remarkable feature of glandular trichomes is their unique . , Veneklaas E. Upper Epidermis of a Leaf: Function & Definition Trichomes are hair-like extensions of epidermal cells. Additional cell types are required for sexual reproduction. (biology, of a surface) covered in (often matted) hairs··feminine plural of tomentoso Figure 1. Present address: Department of Biology, Yonsei University, Sinchon 134 ,  6 Jun 2013 The interaction of bed bug tarsi with the microscopic plant trichomes was . John Hayden2 EUPHORBIACEAE SUBFAMILY OLDFIELDIOIDEAE. grl trichomes at stages 3 and 4 frequently had swollen stalks compared with the wild type . B. In solanaceous crops like tomato, there was a positive correlation between total number of trichomes and the attractiveness to the adults as well as number of eggs laid [21, 22]. D. The narrow opening between the crypt and the atmosphere, combined with the presence of trichomes, causes the air inside the crypt to be rather immobile, even if there is a strong wind blowing over the leaf. Resurgence in bed bug infestations and widespread pesticide resistance have greatly renewed interest in the development of more sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to manage bed bugs. In dicot Arabidopsis thaliana embryos two cotyledons develop largely autonomously from the shoot apical meristem (SAM). The sheaths surrounding the trichomes may be distinct toward the basal portion. Cortex is multi-layered cells sandwiched between epidermis and pericycle. Functions . Palisade layer definition is - a layer of columnar cells rich in chloroplasts found beneath the upper epidermis of foliage leaves —called also palisade mesophyll, palisade parenchyma, palisade tissue. 1 Stinging  11 Feb 2018 Supplement. In nature, only the strong survive, and it is hypothesized by biologists that trichomes evolved as a defense mechanism of the cannabis plant against a range of potential enemies (1). J. A leaf is an above-ground plant organ and it is green. INTRODUCTION A. Nostoc is common as terrestrial and subaerial cyanobacteria. Here we see two types of trichomes found in tomato, multicellular hairs and glandular trichomes. Biology Practical BIOLOGY Notes Biology Practical Exercise 1 SOME COMMON INSTRUMENTS There are some instruments,which you will use frequently while working in the laboratory. (i) Compound Microscope Know your microscope It is an indispensable instrument in a Biology laboratory. Long cells with evenly thickened cell walls ii. In this review, we use endoreplication as a general term encompassing any type of cell cycle leading to endopolyploidy. Define trichome. This is particularly evident in the genus Chenopodium, such as C. 301 Moved Permanently. Filaments in the colonies can slide back and forth against each other until the whole mass is reoriented to its light source. Biology-online is a completely free and open Biology dictionary with over 60,000 biology terms. Biology of Pollination. Cyanobacteria form a very large and diverse phylum of prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Venomous Plants – A Hairy Situation Biology concepts – venom, toxin, poison, nettle, urticating hairs, trichomes, defense behavior The cobalt blue tarantula is a beautiful old world International Journal of Plant Sciences invites papers in all areas of the plant sciences, including genetics and genomics, developmental and cell biology, biochemistry and physiology, morphology and structure, systematics, plant-microbe interactions, paleobotany, evolution, and ecology. . Tropism : A biological process, which indicates the growth of a plant, in response to the environmental stimulus is known as tropism. They are either unicellular or multicellular, which means that some require   Trichome definition, an outgrowth from the epidermis of plants, as a hair. See more ideas about Plants, Botany and Planting flowers. Recessive mutations in the Arabidopsis receptor-like kinase RPK1 lead to monocotyledonous seedlings, with low (10 %) penetrance due to complex functional redundancy. The Arabidopsis trichome is a large single cell with three branches (Fig. In some Sticky resinous growths knows as trichomes are home to the active ingredients in cannabis. Plants developed both physical and chemical defense strategy. Wagner University of Kentucky, gwagner@uky. Parenchyma cells below the palisade layer form the spongy mesophyll, so called because they are often loosely packed allowing for air circulation between Plant genome projects have revealed that both the cell-cycle components and the overall cell-cycle architecture are highly evolutionarily conserved. Pinguicula (Lentibulariaceae) is a genus comprising around 96 species of herbaceous, carnivorous plants, which are extremely diverse in flower size, colour and spur length and structure as well as Stomata are tiny openings or pores in plant tissue that allow for gas exchange. In Arabidopsis, only one specific partner of AtFKBP12, namely AtFIP37 (FKBP12 interacting protein 37 kD), has been identified but its function in plant development is not known. Description. tree master definition = large, tall, woody, perennial plant with a single, unbranched, erect, self-supporting stem holding an elevated and distinct crown of branches greater than 10 feet in height and greater than 3 inches in diameter. The spines of this Ferocactus hamatacanthus provide very obvious protection. Stomata are developed in these chambers. Five of its species Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber, C. edu Rui Wang University of Kentucky Right click to open a feedback form in a new tab to let us know how this document benefits you. Look close and you can see the tiny hairs (trichomes) on the back of these  19 Jul 2017 Trichomes, the epidermal outgrowths covering most aerial plant tissues, height, whereas peltate trichomes are defined as short-stalked (unicellular or . David Marks4 , ∗ Alison W. —have been domesticated in the New World and for thousands of Multiple Epidermis: The presence of a multiple epidermis is rare and is restricted to the leaves of certain families like the Moraceae (Breadfruit & Figs) , and to orchid roots. Roots have root hairs that increase the surface area for more water absorption. They are a type of succulent plant. Coder, Professor of Tree Biology & Health Care, Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria which is named for the oscillation in its movement. There’s nothing new about cannabis, of course. Significance for plant molecular biology. It’s been around humankind Ethylene, for all the simplicity of its structure (C 2 H 4), regulates many aspects of plant growth and development []. effect of the molecularly defined clades on the measured trichome densities. Mature trichomes with several branches were found at the leaf tip and intermediate stages were observed in the mid region (Figure 4B). Much of this research has focused on Arabidopsis thaliana, a small weed in the mustard family. preactive to postactive nectary stages defined by Horner et al. Stem Structure. It consists of a flattened portion, called the blade, that is attached to the plant by a structure called the petiole. Historically, in Eastern Europe, bed bugs were entrapped by leaves from bean plants, which were then The Trichomes of Humulus lupulus and Humulus japonicus, Presented in Context with the Body of Research . The most common cell type in dermal tissue is the epidermal cell. In the Abstract. As seen in Figure 3-3, very often LHDetect2 allows analyzing trichomes on a leaf fold, but it cannot recognize trichomes of the extremely small size. Define cutin. Dicot stems have their vascular bundles in a ring Trichomes so compactly arranged as to generally not be visible as trichomes in the colonies, distinctly constricted at the crosswalls, with the production of hormogonia and germling filaments, blue green to yellowish, 3. Average fluorescence levels were measured from user-defined regions of . It is waterproof to reduce water loss (transpiration) and transparent to allow light to enter the palisade cell. Almost all gesneriads have leaves and flowers with trichomes. Notable among these are the stomatal guard cells that control the rate of gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, glandular and clothing hairs or trichomes, and the root hairs of primary roots. Trichome differentiation protein GL11 Publication. ficifolia Bouché, C. Dense on active constituents including cannabinoids and terpenoids, trichomes pack a lot of punch. Xerophytes are plants which are adapted to dry/desert areas. Hairlike structures found in some microscopic organisms and algae. Instead, Arabidopsis has become the most widely studied plant in modern biology despite its absence from the dinner table. i. While the LSM-W 2 plugin allows analyzing the leaf surface, therefore, main epidermal cells may also be involved in the analysis. -N. pepo L. Veneklaas, School of Plant Biology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences Arabidopsis thaliana in a microfluidic device[edit] Plant on a chip is a device in which Arabidopsis thaliana tissues could be cultured in semi in vitro conditions. Trichomes are abundant in tomato plants. All members of the subfamily Opuntioideae have glochids: numerous, very small spines Dermal tissue functions to protect the plant from injury and water loss. to be defined in plants, which serve as building blocks. Think about the degree of genetic similarity between the focal plant and its neighbors and make a link between genetic sim NAIHC Board Member Dr. Nostoc belongs to the group Cyanophyta of kingdom Monera. Hairlike outgrowths of the shoot epidermis; reduce water loss and reflect excess light. In the root, the epidermal hairs are unicellular and are called as root hairs. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, This video mentions trichomes, but our cartoons Epidermis possesses trichomes and a few stomata. When these trichomes dry out, the surface appears to be coated with a dusting of flour-like particles. The important functions of bulliform cells are: It is mainly concerned with storage of water. The FKBP12 (FK506-binding protein 12 kD) immunophilin interacts with several protein partners in mammals and is a physiological regulator of the cell cycle. PETERSON/AP BIOLOGY. Vascular plants have a fundamental unity of structure Study Plant Biology Key Terms Flashcards at ProProfs - These are flash cards of important Key Terms/Concepts of Plant Biology guard cells, stomata & trichomes are One plant group with the most species used as human food is the Cucurbitaceae family. A, Leaf surfaces contain abundant GTs. and cotton fibers. To be considered for publication, a manuscript must Trichomes are also rich in cannabinoids and ooze aromatic oils called terpenes, which is what is responsible for cannabis’s euphoric and therapeutic effects. The trichomes serve various purposes; some plants secrete juices to attract insects, which others have sharp trichomes which often entangle the insects and keep them from feeding while they struggle to free themselves. Phloem is the complex tissue, which acts as a transport system for soluble organic compounds within vascular plants. The four genes are highly expressed in leaf trichomes of Arabidopsis, and their . Within this family, the genus Cucurbita stands out as one of the most important. any of the threadlike structures, or filaments, of certain algaeOrigin of trichomeGerman trichom from Classical Greek trich?ma, 5 mm wide at the base, and 4-5 mm wide at the apex, trichomes scattered, more abundant in the proximal half of the claw; inner tepals arcuate-recurved, 22-28 mm long, the proximal 2/3 erect-patent, slightly inclinate, then curved upward, the distal 1/3 incurved and strongly reclinate; inner tepal blades 7. Guard cells are kidney-shaped cells that are filled with chloroplasts. The main difference between dermis and epidermis is that dermis is a tissue below the epidermis, containing living cells whereas epidermis is the outermost part of the body, protecting it from dehydration, trauma, and infections. PLANT REPRODUCTION QUESTION 1982 L. Plant cell structure “Cell” - originally coined by Robert Hooke, in 1600’s. genetically identical individuals have propagated for generations B. In stages 1 and 2, 96% of the grl trichomes fell within the wild-type range of measurements , the exceptions being two cells in stage 1, which is the most difficult stage in which to measure cell length. Trichomes may be unicellular or Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. The waxy cuticle is the waterproof, transparent outer surface of the leaf. The glandular trichomes are responsible for secreting a yellow substance that gives off that characteristic "tomato plant" smell. Trichome: Trichomes are the various extensions developing from the epidermis of the plant which are meant to provide protection to the plant. In Nostocales and Stigonematales the cells have the ability to develop heterocysts in certain conditions. Lippia scaberrima, an aromatic indigenous South African plant, with medicinal application, potentially has economic value. For example, a cactus has white hairs which help to prevent water loss. it was all fuckkin haggard lookin cause it was at like week 9 and i had full intentions of still Gground tissue is made up of parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma. Preparing ahead of time for the AP exam format and fully understanding which concepts are covered on the AP Biology test can go a long way toward earning a high score (and potentially getting college credit!). Word Definition Example from Text My Example My Image hypothesis A hypothesis is a possible explanation. Most xeromorphic leaves have a high… Read More; stinging nettle trichome definition: 1. 1111/j A more general definition of secondary cell walls, however, encompasses any thick wall deposited in (mainly) non‐expanding regions of the cell. In B. Comparison between the Stem Structure and Root Structure. The Leaf What Is the Function of the Lower Epidermis? Credit: Scot Nelson/CC-BY-SA 2. These terpenes are mostly found in high concentrations in unfertilized female cannabis flowers prior to senescence (the condition or process of deterioration with age). March 2013 This basic definition has been expanded to include variable and extraordinary trichome structures such as the flattened, disc-shaped wings of Tillandsia species (Benz and Martin, 2005). Journal of the International Hemp Association 2: 29, 32-37. on StudyBlue. A hairlike or bristlelike, sometimes glandular, outgrowth from the epidermis of a plant. existing in the cuticular membrane (this latter as defined by Holloway 1982), and   Two more specialized cell types are also found in the epidermis: guard cells and trichomes. A root hair is a simple extension of the epidermis of a root cell. ” Originating from the Greek  Understanding the glandular activities that occur in these trichomes has The secretory structures are defined as specialized isolated cells or . In females, flowers are dense, bristling with leaflets and upright in thick leaf clusters arrayed along the flowering limb. Roberts5 and Candace H. The genes at the top of the hierarchy delineated by the Adler group were frizzled (fz), which encodes a sevenpass cell-surface receptor Also referred to as blue-green algae and blue-green bacteria, cyanobacteria is a bacteria phylum that obtain their energy through a process known as photosynthesis. Biology is one of the most diverse areas of scientific study, and it is also a specialty that’s in high demand in a variety of fields, from education to opportunities to help to create innovative pharmaceuticals and other products. The leafy fern that you might have as a house plant is the ___ generation: The internal anatomy of a plant will change as the plant matures. They can be found on the surface of the plant (such as herbaceous leaves) and are thought to be responsible for the production of chemicals that deter or attract pests or pollinators. Stomata are generally abundant on the losser of the leaf. Many species of cyanobacteria live colonially in long trichomes of hundreds to thousands of cells. 4. can achieve great size and attain great age 2. Except for one gene, all trichome genes turned out to be involved in other tissues and cells as well. Biology Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for biology researchers, academics, and students. Some trichomes are colored with a pigment or develop a color from weathering and from the environment, but most trichomes have no Tree Trichomes: Big Hairy Tree? by Dr. e. The main difference between stomata of monocot and dicot plants is that the guard cells of the monocots are dumbbell-shaped whereas the guard cells of dicot plants are bean-shaped. 1% (1844) of the unique genes have defined functions B. Video shows what trichome means. be unicellular or multicellular. Shapes of Bacteria: Bacteriology (study of bacteria) is a major part in Microbiology. Master Biology The Easy and Rapid Way with Core Concept Tutorials, Problem-Solving Drills and Super Review Cheat Sheets. Of the filamentous species, many are also motile, gliding along their long axis, and display Coarse perennial shrub 50-60 cm tall, with numerous stems from base, these basally decumbent, up to > 6 mm thick near base, sparsely covered with reddish brown setae 1,5-2 mm long and densely covered with glochidiate trichomes. The Stem. Long, tough strands in celery Main Difference – Dermis vs Epidermis. One of these is the compound microscope. This allows food hormones and water to be distributed throughout the nodes of the plant. See more. In this respect, the study of glandular trichome biology is benefiting  trichome definition: 1. Endoreplication biology, conservation, and significance Definition of endoreplication. This entry was posted in Cannabis Industry, Cannabis Topics and tagged bulbous trichomes, trichome in cyanobacteria, trichomes definition and function, trichomes definition biology, trichomes microscope, trichomes ready harvest, trichomes when to harvest, types of trichomes. Rapp3 , Jonathan F. Definition: Bacteria are prokaryotic, unicellular microorganisms, which lack chlorophyll pigments. We were able to conclude that although both are described as trichomes, their thick secondary cell walls are built by a different set of cellulose synthase genes, which opens a new perspective in the definition of cellulose synthase primary and secondary wall related genes. nginx A xerophyte (from Greek ξηρός xeros dry, φυτόν phuton plant) is a species of plant that has adaptations to survive in an environment with little liquid water, such as a desert or an ice- or snow-covered region in the Alps or the Arctic. Definition. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2010, 52 (2): 205–220 Research Article Phylogenetically Distinct Cellulose Synthase Genes Support Secondary Wall Thickening in Arabidopsis Shoot Trichomes and Cotton Fiber Lissete Betancur1 , Bir Singh2 , Ryan A. Leaves with a single undivided blade are called biology, phenotyping or data analysis (See Figure 2). The trichomes are a special part of the plant because they a General Characteristics of Trichomes: Some of the epidermal cells of axis, leaves and other plant parts grow out in the form of trichomes or hairs. Error bars represent the s. Trichome is an extension of the epidermis in plants, much like hair in humans. Trichomes help keep the frost away from the living surface of cells (and it is colder in different environments) c. ) (Raven et al. He vegetable epidermal tissue is the one that forms the outermost covering of the body of the plant and includes epidermal cells, stomata and epidermal appendages (trichomes and hairs). The flowers of male plants are loose and hang from the plant. Soil to root hair []. Examples of mechanical defenses include thorns on the leaf or stem, bark on a tree, and trichomes or barbs on the leaf. The prokaryotic kingdom consists of unicellular microscopic microorganisms called bacteria. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. [] ~ thaliana is a crucial model organism for plant biology, providing as a major source for studies of plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology. ( biology ) Hairlike structures found in some microscopic organisms and algae . Ground tissue comprises the majority of a young plant and lies between the vascular and dermal tissues. Let us learn about Trichomes. These cells are called subsidiary or accessory cells. A pistil is by definition, all of the reproductive parts. If you've ever touched a plant and felt a leaf that was 'fuzzy,' you were touching Background and Aims. This story appeared in the June 2015 issue of National Geographic magazine and has been updated on October 17, 2018. PETERSON/ECHS In the life cycle of a fern and a flowering plant, compare and contrast each of the following: A. Start studying Biology 1407 Chapter 35. Vascular tissues-xylem and phloem- make it possible for vascular plants to move fluids through their bodies against the force of gravity, and the tracheids that make up the cells for vascular plants are strengthened by lignin, so they create sturdy, tall stems. , Hassiotou F. In many invertebrates the dead, noncellular cuticle is secreted by the epidermis. Comparison between the stems of Dicot and Monocot: Monocot stems have scattered vascular bundles. cutis, skin] Sticky resinous growths knows as trichomes are home to the active ingredients in cannabis. Mahlberg is a Professor of Biology (plant biology) and Senior Fellow of the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Indiana University. 5 Differentiation in plants refers to the processes by which distinct cell types arise from precursor cells and become different from each other. The outer layer, hypodermis (collenchymatous cells), the cortical layers (parenchymatous cells) and the inner layer, endodermis together make up the three subzones of the cortex. In addition to the temporal and spatial Some trichomes are prickles, some are scaled, some secrete substances such as oil. They (Fig. OVERVIEW' ABSTRACT The biovulate subfamily Oldfieldioideae of Euphorbiaceae, characterized by spiny pollen, is an otherwise apparently Plant Trichome Gland Specific Promoter Sequence George J. (Click picture to enlarge) Evolution of Trichomes. They can be both uni and multicellular. If you are considering specializing in biology or you are already working your biology degree, you … Important Questions for Class 11 Biology, chapter- 6 - Anatomy of Flowering Plants, comprises of all the important questions on the exam point of view. Explain the three hypotheses explaining water movement in plant xylem, and recognize which hypothesis explains the heights of plants beyond a few meters; Water Transport from Roots to Shoots. In the shoot epidermis of most plants, only the guard cells have chloroplasts Spongy mesophyll cells Epidermis[edit] SEM image of the leaf epidermis of Nicotiana alata, showing trichomes (hair-like appendages) and stomata (eye-shaped slits, visible at full resolution). definitions used for trees: (multiple sources, 155 descriptors, 45 definitions) plant 20% 20% woody 16% 36% This hard woody trunk does not look like that of a cactus, but the spine clusters unmistakably indicate that this Pereskia pititache is a cactus. 25-1 . The hook-shape of snap bean (Phaseolis vulgaris) trichomes impale caterpillars as they move across the leaf surface, and glandular trichomes in potato and tomato stoma definition: one of the many pores (= very small holes in the surface) on a leaf or stem of a plant through which gases are able to pass in and out. Stigonematales, unlike Nostocales, includes species with truly branched trichomes. Topic 8: Structure and Function of Vascular Plant Cells and Tissues (Chs. Bent. The term "crystals" refers to trichomes, a The single-cell trichomes in wild-type Arabidopsis are either unbranched or have two to five branches. Capitate trichomes are frequently smaller than their counterparts, often occurring in denser populations and are structurally variable (Bosabalidis, 2002). For rod-shaped or filamentous bacteria, length is 1-10µ and diameter is 0. The mesophyll is characterized by a fairly large amount of air space and an abundance of chloroplasts. The series includes High School Biology, AP Biology, SAT Biology, College Biology, Microbiology, Human Anatomy and Physiology, and Genetics. They may be homogeneous or lamellated, but they remain always somewhat confluent with one thallus is the result of repeated false branching in the basal portion of trichomes. Water enters the root through the root hair, and then takes one of three paths (apoplast, symplast and vacuolar) to the xylem vessel. R. Trichomes help to avert herbivory by restricting insect movements or by storing toxic or  The ten-celled biseriate glandular trichome of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert. It is concerned with the rolling and unrolling of the leaves. "Bacterial Hair on Undersea Volcano Unlike Any Seen Before Trichomes have a strong smell that detracts these pests, and their antifungal, antibiotic, and antiviral properties are among the reasons why these compounds are sought after for medicinal purposes. Glandular trichomes and plant glands may exude a sticky substance that entraps and immobilizes small insects, or they may contain toxic constitutents which spill into the surrounding tissue when the gland is ruptured, making it unpalatable or toxic. The definition of Trichome as used in the context of marijuana and cannabis. Trichomes of the leaves, axes, and abaxial faces of the perianth are uniseriate, multicellular, unbranched, gradually taper to a point and appear to be nonliving. Most vascular plants continue growing throughout their lives 1. The Arabidopsis thaliana could have easily escaped human scrutiny. The epidermis on the exposed surface of the leaf – between crypts – lacks stomata. The term "crystals" refers to trichomes, a glencoe. PLoS Biology: New Articles. A Thesis in the Field of Biology . Vegetative cells quadrate to longer than broad, 2. After reading this article you will learn about: 1. Embryo protection STANDARDS: A maximum of 10 points was allotted to each of the fern portion and the angiosperm portion of the question. , 1994. However, it's not the surface area per sé that leads to water loss, it's increased evapotranspiration which can be caused by and mitigated by many different factors Learn how you can increase the number of ripe trichomes on your cannabis plant while growing and harvesting to maximize resin potential. 1 Aug 2018 Summary Trichomes are specialised structures that originate from the (BB/ J004596/1) from the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences  By defining the average fluorescence intensity of the wild-type trichomes as 32 RFU . The chemical barrier is secondary metabolites or chemical toxins which could cause problems for the predators, for example, isoprene, phenolic compounds and alkaloids. listen to the tape you prepared, over and over and over again. Jones (Eds. Stomata of Dicot Plants Cuticle, the outer layer or part of an organism that comes in contact with the environment. (2009) Anita Roth-Nebelsick, State Museum for Natural History Stuttgart, D–70101 Stuttgart, Germany (A. Structure and ontogeny of stomata and trichomes have been studied in 23 species and 3 varieties of theUrticales. Cell Wall 4. Generally more trichomes occur on the ventricular surface. What does the word biochemistry mean? Find and lookup the definition, synonyms, and antonyms of the word biochemistry in our free online dictionary! veluticarpa by its larger laminas with more numerous lateral veins, eglandular petioles, inflorescences borne in the axils of the earliest deciduous leaves, and patchily glabrescent mature fruits. A dense coating of hairs (trichomes) (below). com Teach Yourself Biology Visually in 24 Hours - by Dr. Their main function is to provide support to the plant, holding leaves, flowers, and buds; in some cases, stems also store food for the plant. If you're taking AP Biology, it's a good idea to familiarize yourself with the exam before you get too far into the course. A scientist tests a hypothesis by conducting an experiment. 5-2. Funding is needed to meet data storage/archive needs and ensure the availability and utility of phenomic data for However, little is known concerning how this TF recognizes and selects its target genes. The root hairs penetrate between the soil particles to absorb water. The production of essential oil from this plant has not been optimized, and this study of the chemico-morphological characteristics was aimed at determining the location of oil production within the plant. These thick walls may contain cell wall components of multiple types and organization . These trichomes may. Give a specific example of each term; write a definition for each of the terms given on the "terms-to-know" sheet. Trichomes are not the same as our hair, but insofar as the definition of hair is that it is an outgrowth of the epidermis, then trichomes are for all practical purposes, a kind of hair. Morrissey . Quiz & Worksheet - Artificial Selection Biology Lab Quiz; Definition & Types For our simulation, ours have trichomes, or hairs, on their petioles, the stem-like structure that holds the (G) lgo-1 rosette leaf trichome, which is normal shape and size. Pollination is the event of pollen landing on a stigmatic surface such as the pistil, and fertilization is the union of the staminate chromosomes from the pollen with the pistillate chromosomes from the ovule. 2005). 15 Nov 2014 trichomes using system biology . Trichomes are present as multi-cellular or unicellular on the Epidermis. In contrast to glandular trichomes, non-glandular Arabidopsis trichomes were initially believed to solely represent a barrier on the leaf surface (Esau, 1953, Glover, 2000). However, we noted one striking difference: on mature leaves we found two classes of mature trichomes that differed in size and height (Figure 4J). Endoreduplication is a common process in eukaryotes and results in an increase in the nuclear DNA content, permitting amplification of the genome of specialized cells. They are found singly or in groups. Taxa within diverse lineages select and transport exogenous materials for the purposes of camouflage. 1. Top of Page Pate, D. The Mesophyll The mesophyll (meso = middle and phyll = leaf) is composed of cells that originate from the leafs ground meristem. Chemical ecology of Cannabis. They are distinct from other epidermal cells. The unicellular or multicellular appendages that originate from the epidermal cells are called trichomes. noun In biology, one of the hypothetical, ultimate elements of living protoplasm, similar to the gemmules of Darwin, the physiological units of Herbert Spencer, the biophores of Weismann, etc. edu Sushen Gan University of Kentucky Erming Wang University of Kentucky, ewang2@uky. [L. n 1. Plants, appropriate traits include number of trichomes, amount of purple anthocyanin, and plant height. Terpenes are synthesized in cannabis in secretory cells inside glandular trichomes, and production is increased with light exposure. GO - Biological processi . A leaf is often flat, so it absorbs the most light, and thin, so that the sunlight can get to the chloroplasts in the cells. trichomes: Definition. These hairs serve multiple purposes, including discouraging insect predators, reflecting sunlight, and insulating the plant body. Kim D. Paul, MN. ) n. 1). In many aspects of biology, we use the standard of intercompatibility (the ability to produce viable offspring) to define the species because reproduction is central to relatedness (genetic/functional relatedness is a pillar of many avenues of scientific inquiry), so it is a place to draw the line which has a lot of practical applications. As a plant passes through the various developmental phases of its life cycle and continues to develop new organs, a number of morphological traits (such as size and shape of leaves, phyllotaxy, plastochron, internode length, adventitious root production, trichome distribution and cell size) change in accordance with the developmental stage. (In older woody plants the epidermis is replaced by the periderm, or bark. This layer may, as in the arthropods, contain pigments and chitin; in humans the cuticle is the epidermis. It is also concerned with the hygroscopic opening and closing movements of mature leaves. A waxy layer known as the cuticle covers the leaves of all plant species. A row of cells formed by Trichomes: Trichomes occur in the epidermis of many plants. 2), which plays a role in protecting the plant as a parrying barrier on the leaf surface (Glover and Martin, 2000). Epidermal tissue-Stems are encased by a transparent epidermis which is usually about one cell thick and which often has trichomes. Trichomes are crystalized glands that produce resin on a marijuana plant. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, trichome formation is initiated by the GLABROUS1 protein. Learn more. Size of Bacteria: The average diameter of spherical bacteria is 0. a less defined but rich medium, was much more similar to the trichome  8 May 2011 Of these, 207 highly expressed genes in tobacco trichomes were enriched in second Other 65. A question regarding trichomes in plants. has been accepted for inclusion in Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications by an . Generally, a thin, waxy layer called a cuticle covers the epidermal cells and protects them. To survive these harsh conditions they have special features. 5 µm wide. Arabidopsis trichomes are single-cell hairs derived from single epidermal cells that differentiate to form a characteristic three branched structure . Vascular tissue system consists of the two conducting tissues – xylem and phloem. Trichome definition, an outgrowth from the epidermis of plants, as a hair. Because they require the basic environmental conditions, this bacteria can be found in a variety of environments ranging from marine to terrestrial habitats. Haigler1,2 1 Department of Plant Biology, North Carolina The single-cell trichomes in wild-type Arabidopsis are either unbranched or have two to five branches. Paul G. shifts in metabolic poise, the combination of molecular biology and in situ imaging  28 Jul 2016 The actual definition of trichome is “fine outgrowths or appendages on plants, algae, lichens, and certain protists. maxima Duchesne ex Poiret, and C. trichomes cuticle Ground Tissue parenchyma fibers collenchyma pith, cortex Vascular Tissue vascular bundles, xylem towards in the inside and phloem towards the outside procambium persists in dicots In most dicots, the vascular bundles are arranged in a ring and divide the ground tissue into pith and cortex regions. These are the elongations or the extensions of epidermai cells. The root is the part of the plant that takes in water and minerals for the plant. Stomata are typically found in plant leaves but can also be found in some stems. on a window sill produce seedlings with downward growing roots and Biology Plants Plant Defense. Wendel3 , M. Sometimes leaves are divided into two or more sections called leaflets. trichome synonyms, trichome pronunciation, trichome translation, English dictionary definition of trichome. The phloem is made up of living tissue, which uses turgor pressure and energy in the form of ATP to actively transport sugars to the plant organs such as the fruits, flowers, buds and roots; the other material that makes up the vascular plant transport system But with respect to xerophytic plants, trichomes are still a projection from the leaf surface and so, by definition, increase the surface area of a leaf by a significant amount. Trichomes and the medically rich resin they produce are used to create a variety of cannabis extractions and concentrates, including kief (loose powder trichomes), hash (old-school pressed trichomes or ice water extraction via “bubble bags”), BHO (Butane Hash Oil), and modern interpretations on the theme like wax, shatter, and glass used in This is a complicated question to answer, weed can have THC%'s from 7 to up to 24% which is usually always a good indicator but depending on the colour of the trichomes your high will be different. The physical barriers include cuticle wax on surface of leaves, trichomes, spines and bark. 04 inch long (1 mm), of the common Eastern US wildflower called Wild Comfrey, Cynoglossum virginianum. Bacteria or a bacterium (sing. Trichomes are the resin glands of the pot plant which contain THC, CBD and other active medicinal cannabinoids. Trichomes is the term used to refer to tiny outgrowths from the plant epidermis. Proteomics - The key to understanding systems biology of Arabidopsis trichomes Article · Literature Review in Phytochemistry 72(10):1061-70 · October 2010 with 33 Reads Successful marijuana production requires extensive knowledge of botany and biology, and backcrossing is an industry term borrowed from these fields. The ground tissue of the vascular plant is responsible for storing the carbohydrates produced by the plant. The text below was adapted from OpenStax Biology 30. Buchanan, W. 5–8. Endoreduplication is the duplication of the genome without mitosis. the effort to understand biology within the context …another is dense mats of trichomes on both surfaces of the leaf and guard cells and stomata sunken into the lower surface and often lined with numerous trichomes, which trap moisture, thereby inhibiting total water loss. Biology is a natural science that focuses its study on life and living organisms, and biologists often specialize in a specific aspect of life, such as studying a particular organism or aspect of life such as … The leaf is the primary photosynthetic organ of the plant. The gametophyte generation B. cutin: ( kyū'tin ), A specially prepared, thin, animal membrane used as a protective covering for wounded surfaces. Reconstruction of metabolism in peppermint GTs. Trichomes help to avert herbivory by restricting insect movements or by storing toxic or bad-tasting compounds. Visit for more related articles at European Journal of Experimental Biology of oil glands and provide a valuable resource for defining molecular targets for the  13 May 2008 CAF-1 is required for cell differentiation and regulates trichome BMC Plant Biologyvolume 8, Article number: 54 (2008) | Download Citation . Its main functions are photosynthesis and gas exchange. Key Areas Covered. W. Adult leaves are covered densely with trichomes (Figure 4C). Dermis and epidermis are basically protective outer layers of the body. Pollination begins with dehiscence (release of pollen) from staminate flowers. 5 trichomes have a circular crown of branches which are star-shaped. Guard cells bound an opening called stomata. AP Biology 35. Trichomes in cotton - resistant to whitefly Wax bloom on carucifer leaves - deter feeding by DBM Plant shape and colour also play a role in non preference Open panicle of sorghum - Supports less Helicoverpa Antibiosis Adverse effect of the host plant on the biology (survival, development and Trichomes in particular are distinct from thorns, spines, and prickles in that they are much smaller (often microscopic) outgrowths of epidermal tissue, and they are less rigid and more hair-like in appearance; they typically consist of just a few cells of the outermost layer of epidermis, whereas prickles may include cortex tissue. The shoot tissues arise from the shoot apical meristem as dermal tissue, ground tissue, and vascular tissue. Several cell types may be present in the epidermis. Stomata are anomocytic, more rarely paracytic; anisocytic and sometimes helicocytic and transitorial types are found inUrticaceae andDorstenia, rarely inArtocarpus. Arabidopsis thaliana trichomes are classified as being aerial, epidermal, unicellular, tubular structures. Differential expression was defined as a gene with a minimum of a  Trichomes, defined as hair-like structures that extend from the epidermis of aerial Dept of Plant Biology, 220 Biosciences Center, St. any hairlike outgrowth from an epidermal cell of a plant, as a bristle, prickle, root hair, etc. The trichomes create a microlayer of humid air around the pant, particularly in the vicinity of the stomata. PLANT REPRODUCTION QUESTION 1973: L. I think my hypothesis is probably correct. Bearded or Barbate. of the mean values of three biological replicates. ' Piercing' was defined as a clear and unambiguous penetration of  Other leaves may have small hairs (trichomes) on the leaf surface. Trichomes are literally the cream of the cannabis crop. Fleshy fruit, with succulent pericarp, as in Vitis The epidermis usually forms projections known as epidermal hairs. ) Duchesne ex Poiret, C. spend approximately 2 hours per class studying this material Study 46 Biology Exam 2 flashcards from Austin M. in Botany at the University of California, Berkeley and his MS and BS degrees in Botany at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. 7. Knockouts of the corresponding gene lead to glabrous plants. Successful marijuana production requires extensive knowledge of botany and biology, and backcrossing is an industry term borrowed from these fields. Trichomes are plant hairs composed of one or more cells. for the Degree of Master of Liberal Arts in Extension Studies . Dermal tissue comprises the epidermis: pavement cells, guard cells, and trichomes. 35-39) I. Though mainly invisible to the naked eye, some are quite prominent. any hairlike outgrowth from the surface of a plant 2. In Oscillatoriales, the cells are uniseriately arranged and do not form specialized cells (akinetes and heterocysts). Cuticle are Present and thick. Although the term "trichomes" generally refers to outgrowths ranging from small hairs to larger outgrowths like thorns, it is typically used to refer to the tiny hairs that can be seen emerging from the surfaces of leaves and other epidermal surfaces of plants. 5 cm long, abaxially completely covered by a coarse layer of white trichomes, adaxially sparsely and inconspicuously white lepidote except for the densely white lepidote apex, coarsely spinulose, spines sub-triangular, uncinate, blackish, 3-5 mm long, 8-20 mm apart, the basal ones prevailing antrorse, the upper ones prevailing retrorse. 0µ. Development 5. Measure the area of the leaf blade with Image J software (Flash 2) and count the total trichome numbers using Cell Counter plugin in Image J software (Flash 3). hahahahaha. For that, we used a stereomicroscope and a broad-scale sampling scheme to characterize the macromorphology of trichomes in the 105 species of Bignonieae included in the phylogenetic anlysis of the tribe. Cell theory: 1) All life made of cells 2) Cells arise from pre-existing cells Photo credit: Google Banksia ilicifolia Stomatal Crypts Have Small Effects on Transpiration: A Numerical Model Analysis by Roth-Nebelsick A. In trichome (plural trichomes) ( botany ) A hair - or scale -like extension of the epidermis of a plant . The major cells of the ground tissue are parenchyma cells, which function in Cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria, some of which are nitrogen-fixing, that live in a wide variety of moist soils and water either freely or in a symbiotic relationship with plants or lichen-forming fungi (as in the lichen genus Peltigera). He received his Ph. Introduction to Trichomes: Some of the epidermal cells of most plants grow out in the form of hairs or trichomes. Some of the key tissues in plants are: vascular tissues dermal tissues ground tissues In Trichomes on the surface of soybeans (Glycine max) prevent insect eggs from reaching the epidermis and the larvae starve after hatching. Mesophyll modifications provide a means of storing water. noun A term proposed by Sachs for certain individual cells or tissue-elements which differ greatly, as regards their contents, from the surrounding tissues. The phrase 'growth and development' may be one of the most commonly used scientific phrases (a Google search turns up over 17 million hits), but for our purposes it is worthwhile to disengage the terms 'growth' and 'development' from each other. Phloem Definition. Sperm transport and fertilization C. ) are simple single-celled organisms that lack organized nucleus and any chlorophyll pigments but they possess a rigid cell wall. Gene ontology classifications (biological process) for differentially  Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 18, Issue 9, September 2001, Pages . trichomes definition biology

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